The two main varieties that are important for the subject of coffee are Arabica and Robusta. Arabica has many sub-varieties that are often mentioned on labels. Some of the well-known varieties are Bourbon, Geisha, Maragogype, Catuaí and Colombia. These sub-varieties of Arabica contribute to the diverse flavours and characteristics found in different coffees. They are carefully cultivated and valued for their unique flavour profiles, which range from fruity and floral to nutty and chocolatey.
Another popular sub-variety of Arabica is Typica, known for its balanced flavour and widely used in several coffee-growing regions. In addition, Caturra, a natural mutation of Bourbon, is prized for its compact size and high yields. A notable variety, Selection 795, was created by crossing plants in India and has gained popularity among high-end coffee producers. Its unique characteristics and sought-after taste make it a coveted choice in the world of specialty coffee.