Turkish coffee, also known as moka, is the oldest known way of preparing coffee. It is widely consumed in Turkey and the Middle East and has been recognised as a UNESCO Intangible World Heritage Site since 2013. Turkish coffee is made from finely ground coffee beans from Ethiopia or Yemen and served in special cups together with the coffee grounds.
To prepare authentic Turkish coffee, the coffee powder must be very finely ground. It is brewed in a copper or brass pot called an ibrik. Water and sugar are added and brought to a boil. Then coffee powder is stirred in and the mixture is boiled twice. The first boil produces foam, which is scooped into the cups while the remaining foam settles. The coffee is boiled again and then poured into the cups without stirring so as not to disturb the coffee grounds.
Turkish coffee has a unique taste and consistency due to the suspended coffee grounds, which gives it a thick, syrupy texture. It is often flavoured with cardamom, cinnamon and cloves for an additional distinctive taste. Compared to other preparation methods, Turkish coffee contains a higher amount of caffeine due to the water and coffee grounds being boiled together. Its arrival in Turkey dates back to the 16th century, when it was presented as a gift to Sultan Suleyman by the governor of Ethiopia.